Sections

Glossary
# Glossary

- conduction
- heat transfer through stationary matter by physical contact

- convection
- heat transfer by the macroscopic movement of fluid

- emissivity
- measure of how well an object radiates

- greenhouse effect
- warming of Earth that is due to gases such as carbon dioxide and methane that absorb infrared radiation from Earth’s surface and reradiate it in all directions, thus sending a fraction of it back toward the surface of Earth

- heat
- the spontaneous transfer of energy due to a temperature difference

- heat of sublimation
- the energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the vapor phase

- kilocalorie
- $\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}1\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kilocalorie}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{=}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{1,000}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{calories}$

- latent heat coefficient
- a physical constant equal to the amount of heat transferred for every 1 kg of a substance during the change in phase of the substance

- mechanical equivalent of heat
- the work needed to produce the same effects as heat transfer

- net rate of heat transfer by radiation
- is $\frac{{Q}_{\text{net}}}{t}=\sigma eA\left({T}_{2}^{4}-{T}_{1}^{4}\right)$

*R*factor- the ratio of thickness to the conductivity of a material

- radiation
- heat transfer which occurs when microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, or other electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed

- radiation
- energy transferred by electromagnetic waves directly as a result of a temperature difference

- rate of conductive heat transfer
- rate of heat transfer from one material to another

- specific heat
- the amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of a substance by 1.00 ºC

- Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation
- $\frac{Q}{t}=\sigma eA{T}^{4},$ where $\sigma $ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, $A$ is the surface area of the object, $T$ is the absolute temperature, and $e$ is the emissivity

- sublimation
- the transition from the solid phase to the vapor phase

- thermal conductivity
- the property of a material’s ability to conduct heat