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Review Questions

Review Questions

1.

What is the most important energy currency used by cells?

1. ATP
3. AMP
2.

What happens when a chemical is reduced during a reaction?

1. The compound is reduced to a simpler form.
2. An electron is added to the chemical.
3. A hydrogen atom is removed from the substrate.
4. It acts as a catabolic reaction.
3.
Which of the following molecules are oxidizing agents?
4.
Which of the following reactions releases energy?
1. $AMP+phosphate→ADP+H2O$
2. $ADP+phosphate→ATP+H2O$
3. $ATP+H2O→ADP+Phosphate$
4. $AMP+H2O→ATP+Phosphate$
5.

What is removed from pyruvate during its conversion into an acetyl group?

1. oxygen
2. ATP
3. vitamin B
4. carbon dioxide
6.
GLUTs are integral membrane proteins that assist in the facilitated diffusion of glucose into and out of cells. What reaction in glycolysis prevents glucose from being transported back out of the cell?
1. Hexokinase dephosphorylates glucose using ATP, creating a glucose molecules that can’t cross the hydrophilic portion of the plasma membrane.
2. Hexokinase phosphorylates glucose using ADP, creating a glucose molecules that can’t cross the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane.
3. Hexokinase dephosphorylates glucose using ADP, creating a glucose molecule that can’t cross the hydrophilic portion of the plasma membrane.
4. Hexokinase phosphorylates glucose using ATP, creating a glucose molecule that can’t cross the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane.
7.
How many ATP molecules are used and produced per molecule of glucose during glycolysis?
1. The first half of glycolysis uses 2 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis produces 4 ATPs.
2. The first half of glycolysis produces 2 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis uses 4 ATPs.
3. The first half of glycolysis uses 4 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis produces 2 ATPs.
4. The first half of glycolysis produces 4 ATPS, and the second half of glycolysis uses 2 ATPs.
8.
What do the electrons added to $NAD+$ do in aerobic respiration?
1. They become part of a fermentation pathway.
2. They go to another pathway for ATP production.
3. They energize the acetyl group in the citric acid cycle.
4. They are converted to NADP.
9.
GTP, which can be converted to ATP, is produced during which reaction of the citric acid cycle?
1. isocitrate into $α$-ketoglutarate
2. succinyl-CoA into succinate
3. fumarate into malate
4. malate into oxaloacetate
10.
How many NADH molecules are produced on each turn of the citric acid cycle?
1. one
2. two
3. three
4. four
11.
1. FMN
2. ubiquinone
3. cytochrome c1
4. oxygen
12.
Chemiosmosis involves the movement of what? Where does it occur?
1. electrons across the cell membrane
2. hydrogen atoms across a mitochondrial membrane
3. hydrogen ions across a mitochondrial membrane
4. glucose through the cell membrane
13.
What is the function of an electron in the electron transport chain?
1. to dephosphorylate ATP, producing ADP
2. to power active transport pumps
3. to reduce heme in complex III
4. to oxidize oxygen
14.
What would be the outcome if hydrogen ions were able to diffuse through the mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondria without the need for integral membrane proteins?
1. ATP would not be produced.
2. Pyruvate would not be produced.
3. Citric acid would not be produced.
4. Carbon dioxide would not be produced.
15.
Which of the following fermentation methods can occur in animal skeletal muscles?
1. lactic acid fermentation
2. alcohol fermentation
3. mixed acid fermentation
4. propionic fermentation
16.

Which molecules are produced in glycolysis and used in fermentation?

2. lactate, ATP, and CO2
17.
What are the products of alcohol fermentation?
1. methane and $NADH$
2. lactic acid and $FAD+$
3. ethanol and $NAD+$
4. pyruvic acid and $NADH$
18.
In the first step of glycolysis, what is glucose transformed into?
1. glucose-6-phosphate
2. fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
3. dihydroxyacetone phosphate
4. phosphoenolpyruvate
19.
What is beta-oxidation?
1. the main process used to break down glucose
2. the main process used to assemble glucose
3. the main process used to break down fatty acids
4. the main process used to remove amino groups from amino acids
20.
Which of the following statements about catabolic pathways is false?
1. Carbohydrates can feed into oxidative phosphorylation.
2. Glycerol can be broken down into glucose and feed into glycolysis.
3. Amino acids can feed into pyruvate oxidation.
4. Fatty acids can feed into the citric acid cycle.
21.
What impact, if any, do high levels of ADP have on glycolysis?
1. They increase the activity of enzymes involved with glycolysis.
2. The high levels decrease the activity of enzymes involved with glycolysis.
3. They have no effect on the activity of any enzymes involved with glycolysis.
4. The high levels slow down all pathways involved with glycolysis.
22.
The control of which enzyme exerts the greatest control of glycolysis?
1. hexokinase
2. phosphofructokinase
3. glucose-6-phosphatase
4. aldolase
23.
Which of the following does not occur as ATP concentration increases relative to ADP?
1. decreased activity of phosphofructokinase
2. increased activity of pyruvate kinase
3. decreased activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase
4. slowdown of the electron transport chain