Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?
- natural selection
- sexual reproduction
Which of these statements about a natural principle that points to the inevitability of natural selection is false?
- Most characteristics of organisms are inherited.
- Offspring vary among each other in regard to their characteristics.
- Some generations of offspring do not need to compete for resources.
- Certain traits will be better represented in the next generation.
Which is the best definition of adaptation?
- a trait or behavior that aids an organism’s survival and reproduction
- a heritable trait or behavior that aids an organism’s survival and reproduction
- a trait or behavior that aids a population’s survival and reproduction
- a heritable trait or behavior that aids a population’s survival and reproduction
Which is an example of an adaptation?
- The better nutrition of a human helps her grow taller.
- The webbed feet of a duck help it swim.
- The urban location of a raccoon helps it find food.
- The large leaves of a desert plant require more water.
Which of the processes described is divergent evolution?
- Groups of organisms evolve in different directions from a common point.
- A new species develops rapidly when an event cuts off a portion of a population.
- Groups of organisms independently evolve to similar forms.
- A species evolves when a few members move to a new geographical area.
Which situation is most likely an example of convergent evolution?
- Some fish that live in total darkness have eyes.
- Hawks and other birds have feathers.
- Worms and snakes both move without legs.
- Flowers that look very different have the same reproductive organs.
What are homologous structures?
- physical structures that have no apparent function
- parallel structures in diverse organisms
- physical structures that are used only occasionally
- similar structures in diverse organisms
Which of the following are two examples of vestigial structures?
- gills in fish and parts of the throat in humans
- butterfly wings and dragonfly wings
- hind leg bones in whales and leaves on some cacti
- shark fins and dolphin fins
Which statement best describes the relationship between the theory of evolution and the origin of life?
- The theory includes an explanation of life’s origins.
- The theory cannot explain the origin of life.
- The theory does not try to explain the origin of life.
- The theory does not contribute understanding to pre-life processes.
Which best describes what happens when an antibiotic is applied to a population of bacteria?
- The bacteria develops resistance to the antibiotic in direct response to its application.
- The bacteria’s genetic material mutates in response to the antibiotic, resulting in resistance.
- A gene for resistance, already present in the population, decreases in frequency.
- A gene for resistance, already present in the population, increases in frequency.
Which is the best definition of species?
- A group of individual organisms with significant genetic similarities
- a group of individual organisms with significant genetic similarities that share external and internal characteristics
- a group of individual organisms that interbreed
- a group of individual organisms that interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring
What do scientists focus on to distinguish between species?
- ecological niches
- morphological differences
- reproductive barriers
- genetic changes
Which are two primary sources of genetic variation?
- mutations and sexual reproduction
- isolation and sexual reproduction
- sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
- migration and sexual reproduction
Which statement best describes the relationship between genetic variation and speciation?
- Without genetic variation, speciation would occur more slowly.
- Without genetic variation, speciation would not be possible.
- Genetic variation influences sympatric speciation, but not allopatric speciation.
- There is no relationship between genetic variation and any form of speciation.
Which statement about postzygotic barriers is false?
- They occur after fertilization.
- They include hybrids that are sterile.
- They include hybrid organisms that don’t survive the embryonic stage.
- They include reproductive organ incompatibility.
Which situation is an example of a prezygotic barrier?
- Two species of fish produce sterile offspring.
- Two species of flowers attract different pollinators.
- Two species of insects mate, but the zygote does not survive.
- Two species of lizards mate, but the offspring dies before reproducing.
Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?
- A flood causes the formation of a new lake
- A storm causes several large trees to fall down.
- A mutation causes a new trait to develop.
- An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.
What is the main difference between an autopolyploid individual and an allopolyploid individual?
- number of extra chromosomes
- functionality of extra chromosomes
- source of extra chromosomes
- number of mutations in the extra chromosomes
What is unique about speciation due to adaptive radiation?
- It leads to multiple species forming from one parent species.
- It only occurs on or around island archipelagos.
- It requires a population to disperse from its parent species.
- It is a special kind of sympatric speciation.
Which is least likely to be a factor that increases the probability of speciation by adaptive radiation?
- There are vacant ecological niches nearby.
- Genetic drift in a population increases.
- There are isolated regions with suitable habitats.
- There are few competitor species.
In a hybrid zone, in addition to interacting, what else do two closely related species do?
Which situation means reinforcement is more likely to occur in the hybrid zone?
- The hybrid offspring are more fit than the parent species.
- Reproductive barriers weaken.
- The hybrid offspring are about as fit as the parent species.
- Reproductive barriers strengthen.
Which of the following statements is false?
- Graudal speciation and punctuated equilibrium both result in the divergence of species.
- Punctuated equilibrium is most likely to occur in a large population in a stable environment.
- In the punctuated equilibrium model, gradualism is not excluded.
- In the gradual speciation model, traits change incrementally.
Which component of speciation would be least likely to be a part of punctuated equilibrium?
- a division in populations
- a change in environmental conditions
- ongoing gene flow
- a number of mutations occurring at once