What type of ecosystem is the rarest on Earth, among both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems?
If an ecosystem is considered to be highly resilient, what can be inferred about that ecosystem?
- The ecosystem is in a steady state.
- The ecosystem has the ability to remain in equilibrium despite disturbance.
- The ecosystem recovers quickly from disturbance.
- The ecosystem is exposed to disturbances.
What is a re-created ecosystem in a laboratory environment known as?
A scientist wants to analyze how deer grazing alters plant species composition in a forest and sections off a portion of the forest for observation and analysis. What type of system is the scientist using?
What term describes the use of mathematical equations in the modeling of linear aspects of ecosystems?
- analytical modeling
- simulation modeling
- conceptual modeling
- microcosm modeling
If a scientist constructs a flow chart to depict the interactions among species in an estuary, what kind of model is she creating?
- analytical model
- stimulation model
- conceptual model
- microcosm model
What are usually the primary producers in an ocean grazing food web?
Which of the following statements is true of trophic levels in an ecosystem?
- Food chains are accurate representations of dynamics in an ecosystem.
- In terrestrial ecosystems, primary producers commonly eat plants.
- Food webs are easier to interpret than food chains.
- The least amount of energy is available at the top of a food chain.
Where are coral reefs found?
- shallow ocean water
- deep ocean water
- intertidal areas
- shallow freshwater
What is the weight of living organisms in an ecosystem at a particular point in time known as?
If you wanted to measure gross primary productivity in a terrestrial ecosystem, what would you measure?
- rate of energy incorporation by plants
- energy available after a plant incorporates energy for its own biological functions
- amount of energy from plants entering the trophic level of deer
- total mass of plants and animals in an area at a given point in time
What law of chemistry determines how much energy can be transferred when it is converted from one form to another because energy is lost with each transformation?
- the first law of thermodynamics
- the second law of thermodynamics
- the conservation of matter
- the conservation of energy
What is the primary factor that limits the length of food chains in ecosystems?
- low energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels
- too much net primary productivity
- excess assimilation
- low gross primary productivity
What type of pyramid is considered the most representative of ecosystem structure?
- number of organisms
- number of species
Why are the numbers of primary producers smaller than the number of primary consumers in the English Channel ecosystem?
- The apex consumers have a high turnover rate.
- The primary producers have a low turnover rate.
- The apex consumers have a low turnover rate.
- The primary producers have a high turnover rate.
What forms of life use inorganic molecules as an energy source and are found in areas where sunlight is unavailable?
- primary consumers
- secondary consumers
What is the process whereby nitrogen is brought into organic molecules called?
- nitrogen fixation
- nitrogen cycling
Which of the following is a mechanism by which phosphorus is released into the environment?
- rock weathering
- decomposition of organic molecules
- volcanic activity
- geothermal vent activity
What is produced by eutrophication via excess nitrogen where a hydrologic reservoir lacks normal flora and fauna?
- acid rain
- dead zones
What is a potential consequence of excess phosphorus and nitrogen in an ecosystem?
- These elements could result in increased global temperatures.
- Subduction can be promoted.
- These elements might be fixed in excess.
- A dead zone could be produced from depleted oxygen.
What term is given for freshwater that flows from rain or melting ice in the hydrologic cycle?
- residence time
- surface runoff
What most strongly influences how much carbon is present in a given location?
- Presence of fossils
- Runoff from the land into bodies of water
- Eutrophication of bodies of water
- Exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and water