Review Questions

Review Questions

What is the ultimate source of all variation in and among populations?
  1. genetic mutations that result in viable offspring
  2. natural selection
  3. diverse habitats
  4. factors in the environment that may affect development
When male lions reach sexual maturity, they are thrown out of their group, or pride, and must live on their own or with other males until they can take over their own pride. This can alter the allele frequencies of the population through which of the following mechanisms?
  1. natural selection
  2. gene flow
  3. random mating
  4. genetic drift

Which of the following populations has violated the conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

  1. an infinitely large population
  2. a population in which the allele frequencies do not change over time
  3. a population in which the Hardy-Weinberg equation is equal to 1
  4. a population undergoing natural selection
What is the difference between micro and macroevolution?
  1. Microevolution describes the evolution of small organisms, such as insects, while macroevolution describes the evolution of large organisms, like people and elephants.
  2. Microevolution describes the evolution of microscopic entities, such as molecules and proteins, while macroevolution describes the evolution of whole organisms.
  3. Microevolution describes the evolution of organisms in populations, while macroevolution describes the evolution of species over long periods of time.
  4. Microevolution describes the evolution of organisms over their lifetimes, while macroevolution describes the evolution of organisms over multiple generations.

Which of the following would be supported by Lamarck?

  1. Natural selection leads to changes in organisms over time.
  2. The strong arms of a gorilla are the result of its parents constantly climbing, lifting and fighting.
  3. Lack of resources led to the death of three of four fox cubs.
  4. The founder effect is when a few individuals in a population are separated from the original population.

What is population variance influenced by?

  1. genetic structure
  2. environment
  3. diet composition
  4. all of the above
What is genetic variance?
  1. the change in a population’s genetic structure
  2. the effect of chance on a population’s gene pool
  3. the diversity of alleles and genotypes within a population
  4. the magnification of genetic drift as a result of natural events or catastrophes
When closely related individuals mate with each other, or inbreed, the offspring are often not as fit as the offspring of two unrelated individuals. Why?
  1. Inbreeding causes normally silent alleles to be expressed.
  2. The DNA of close relatives reacts negatively in the offspring.
  3. Inbreeding can bring together rare, deleterious mutations that lead to harmful phenotypes
  4. Close relatives are genetically incompatible.
What could cause genetic drift to occur within a population?
  1. accidental deaths
  2. predators
  3. disease
  4. lack of gene flow
What is the evolutionary mechanism that alters allele frequencies by chance called?
  1. genetic drift
  2. natural selection
  3. inbreeding
  4. migration
What is assortative mating?
  1. when individuals mate with those who are similar to themselves
  2. when individuals mate with those who are dissimilar to themselves
  3. when individuals mate with those who are most fit in the population
  4. when individuals mate with those who are least fit in the population
What is an example of a cline?
  1. a random fluctuation in a species gene frequencies
  2. a mutation that spreads across the ecological range of a species
  3. the females of a species preferring males that are orange in coloration instead of white
  4. a species having greater cold tolerance in the colder parts of its range than in the warmer parts of its range
Which type of selection results in greater genetic variance in a population?
  1. stabilizing selection
  2. directional selection
  3. diversifying selection
  4. positive frequency-dependent selection
What types of phenotypes does negative frequency-dependent selection favor?
  1. advantageous
  2. rare
  3. common
  4. disadvantageous
The good genes hypothesis is a theory that explains what?
  1. why more fit individuals are more likely to have more offspring
  2. why alleles that confer beneficial traits or behaviors are selected for by natural selection
  3. why some deleterious mutations are maintained in the population
  4. why individuals of one sex develop impressive ornament traits

Which of the following describes when males and females of a population look or act differently?

  1. sexual selection
  2. diversifying selection
  3. sexual dimorphism
  4. a cline