Test Prep for AP® Courses

Which of the following structures is conserved in all living organisms and points to a common origin?
  1. All living organisms have mitochondria that produce energy.
  2. All living organisms store genetic material in DNA/RNA.
  3. All living organisms use the energy from sunlight
  4. All living organisms have a nucleus.
Which of the following statements is the strongest argument in favor of two organisms, A and B, being closely related evolutionarily?
  1. A and B look alike.
  2. A and B live in the same ecosystem.
  3. A and B use the same metabolic pathways.
  4. The DNA sequences of A and B are highly homologous.

In the phylogenetic tree shown, which organism is most distantly related to organism 2?

A phylogenetic tree begins with organism 1, with four branches at points A, B, C and D. The organisms at the ends of these branches are 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.

Figure 1.22
  1. 1
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5

In the phylogenetic tree shown, which organism is the most recent common ancestor of organisms 1 and 3?

The figure shows a V-shaped branching diagram in which two diagonal lines of the same length meet at a point. The point where the two lines meet is labelled with the letter D. The right diagonal line extends from D to the number 5. The left line follows this progression: D, C, B, A, 1. The letter C branches to a shorter right diagonal line that ends at the number four.  The letter B branches to a shorter right diagonal line that ends at the number 3. The letter A branches to a shorter right diagonal line
Figure 1.23
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
The French scientist Jacques Monod famously said, “Anything found to be true of E. coli must also be true of elephants.” How is this statement based on the notion that living organisms share a common ancestor?
  1. E. coli is a eukaryote and share similarities with most of the living organisms.
  2. E. coli is a prokaryote. The various metabolic processes and core functions in E. coli share homology with higher organisms.
  3. E. coli contains a nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles that are shared by all the living organisms.
  4. E. coli is a prokaryote and reproduces through binary fission which is common to most of the living organisms.
Birds have been reclassified as reptiles. What is one line of evidence that has led to this reclassification?
  1. Archeopteryx is the connecting link between birds and reptiles which shows that birds and reptiles are related.
  2. Birds have scales, so they have the same origin as that of reptiles.
  3. Birds and reptiles have the same circulatory and excretory systems and both are egg laying animals.
  4. Birds and reptiles have similar anatomical and morphological features.